June 28, 1956

6:00 am: The staff of W 3 refuse to start work and gather in the hall. Workers then split into groups and go round other ZISPO divisions (W 2, W 4, W 6 and W 8).

6:35 am: ZISPO workers leave the plant and walk along Dzierżyńskiego Street towards the city centre.

6:35-9:00 am: Workers march down Dzierżyńskiego Street. At Wilda Market Place, some of them walk along Gwardii Ludowej Street and others go via Przemysłowa Street and Robocza Street to ZNTK. Both processions merge at Marchlewskiego Street. Workers of ZISPO, ZNTK and other Wilda-based companies cross the Dworcowy Bridge, and then walk along Rokossowskiego and Roosevelta streets and streets within the Jeżyce district, i.e. Zwierzyniecka, Kraszewskiego and Dąbrowskiego. Demonstrators are joined by staff from companies located in this district, including MPK, Poznań Textile Works, the M. Kasprzak Printing House, Mechanical Equipment Factory and WFUM. A section of the staff from the latter plant go to the State Cigarette Factory, and then march along Matejki, Berwińskiego, Wyspiańskiego and Rokossowskiego streets towards the city centre. At the same time, protesters who walked down Dąbrowskiego Street now take Fredry, 27 Grudnia, Ratajczaka and Czerwonej Armii streets heading to Stalin Square.
Processions of workers from Grunwald and the right-bank part of the city (among others from the Poznań Harvesting Equipment Factory, Wielkopolska Vehicle Repair Plant, Lechia and Pomet) reach the square. Workers also arrive on flat-bed trucks, as well.

9:00-11:00 am: Demonstrators on the square in front of the Castle (seat of the City National Council, MRN) and chant slogans demanding that representatives of the authorities come out to meet them. A delegation is picked out from the crowd and goes to talk to Franciszek Frąckowiak, the MRN President. They request a visit of either Józef Cyrankiewicz or Edward Ochab, the First Secretary of KC PZPR. A group of protesters hangs out a white flag on the mast on the castle roof.
After talks with the MRN President, the delegation goes to the KW PZPR building. In a conversation with Wincenty Kraśko, they once again demand that Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz comes to Poznań. Inspired by the delegates, Kraśko addresses the crowd. He says that Czesław Rutkowski had not been arrested and ZNTK employees resent it. The news about this detention quickly turns into a rumour that ZISPO delegates have been detained, and it is spread through announcements over megaphones from a seized patrol car of the Provincial Communications Board. The car was commandeered at Kościuszki Street by Deckert and Tomaszczyk, ZNTK workers.
Around 10:00 am, a group of protesters enter the KW PZPR building again, where they take down red flags and hang out boards with slogans. Another group enters the building of the Provincial Headquarters of Civic Militia and tries to talk militia officers into joining the protest. Lieutenat Colonel Lipiński, the Head of the 10th Regiment of the Internal Security Corps (KBW), sends a group of soldiers under the command of Captain Herda to the building of the Provincial Office for Public Security (WUds.BP) to provide assistance in organising a defence of the building
After 10:00 am, the crowd splits into two groups. One of them, encouraged by calls made over a megaphone of the radio car, goes to the prison at Młyńska Street. The second demonstration takes Kochanowskiego Street, where the WUBP building is located. Devices for jamming Western broadcasts are thrown down from the roof of the building of the Social Insurance Institution at Dąbrowskiego Street. Some protesters manage to break into the building of the City Committee of PZPR at Mickiewicza Street. Around 10:15 am, demonstrators arrive at Kochanowskiego Street.
By this time, the first group has reached the prison at Młyńska Street. Protesters demand the gates to be opened. In order to scare away the crowd gathered in front of the prison, guards use water from hydrants. About 10:50 am, protesters storm the prison gates; a few manage to get over the walls using ladders and open the gate from the inside. Protesters barge into the prison, open prison cells and release 252 inmates.
At the same time, UB officers spray water on demonstrators at Kochanowskiego Street; stones are being thrown at the WUds.BP building. Around 11:00 am shots are fired, the injured are taken to the Pawłow Hospital and Raszeja Hospital.

11:00 am-2:00 pm: Protesters at Młyńska Street enter the building of the District Court and the Prosecutor’s Office, throw files out on the street and burn them. Around 11:30 am, the armoury located in the prison building is seized; as a result, 80 units of weapons and ammunition is seized by demonstrators.
About 11:00 am, the Head of the Military Academy of Armoured and Mechanised Formations (OSWPiZ) sends about 300 academy cadets along with 16 tanks, two armoured personnel carriers (BTR) and thirty vehicles to secure the designated buildings. On their way to the area of Kochanowskiego Street, a couple of tanks are set on fire by Molotov cocktails. Soldiers are forced to leave their vehicles. After 12:00 noon, another group is sent from OSWPiZ, comprising four tanks and two platoons of cadets. Around 12.30 pm, demonstrators seize two tanks and disarm their crews. At 1:00 pm, the Head of OSWPiZ talks to General Jerzy Bordziłowski, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces. He then orders the recall of five platoons of cadets and thirteen tanks from Biedrusko military base.
Before that, General Jerzy Bordziłowski puts the entire 2nd Armoured Corps, present on Biedrusko military training ground, on battle alert.
In the area of Kochanowskiego Street, an exchange of shots intensifies and the siege of the UB building continues, as the building is fired on from over 20 gun sites.

2:00-6:00 pm: Around 2:00 pm, a group of people, headed by General Popławski, arrives at Ławica airport; he takes over the command of the order-keeping forces in Poznań. At 3:00 pm, the Head of OSWPiZ sends a task force, recalled from Biedrusko, to the area of the WUBP building; it includes eight tanks and 120 cadets. Subunits meet with strong resistance from demonstrators, however. Eventually, cadet groups manage to enter the surrounded building after over two hours, and at 5.30 pm an external ring around the WUBP building is closed. After 4:00 pm, units of the 2nd Armoured Corps join in.
By this time, armed groups have disarmed the Military Department at the Higher School of Agriculture (at 2:30 pm), 8th Civic Militia station at Junikowo (at 3:00 pm), Military Department at the Medical Academy (at 3:30 pm), 5th Civic Militia station at Wilda (at 4:00 pm) and Civic Militia stations in Swarzędz (at 5:00) pm and Puszczykowo (at 6:00 pm).
By 6:00 pm, the first to enter Poznań were the units of the 19th Armoured Division and the 2nd Armoured Corps.

6:00–9:00 pm: Armed groups of protesters disarm the Prisoners’ Camp in Mrowino (at 6:30 pm), Military Department at the Poznań University of Technology (at 7:00 pm) and a Civic Militia station in Mosina (at 7:30 pm). Around 8:10 pm, there is a shooting in Czempiń, as an attempt to disarm the Civic Militia station fails.
In Poznań, in particular around the WUds.BP building, fighting with security forces continue. Around 8:00 pm, units of the 10th Armoured Division and the 2nd Armoured Corps arrive in the city.
In Środa Wlkp., inhabitants gather at the Market Square, in the vicinity of the District Committee of PZPR in the afternoon and the evening. A KBW unit on its way to Poznań is held for a while. After 11:15 pm, militia disperse those who have gathered.
At 9:00 pm a curfew is introduced in Poznań, lasting until 4:00 am the following day.
 

Tagi: calendary
A
A+
A++
Print
PDF
Send to Your friend
Back